Document Type: Original Article
Al-Mustafa International Research Institute
Islamic civilization has gone through many changes of fortune. In the early years of Islam, Moslems were able to create societies which were unified and stable by relying on their faith and their political and scientific efforts. But the Mongol Invasion and the Chris tian Crusades provided the Islamic civilization with serious challenges, and a renewed blooming of the civilizations in Iran, India and under the Ottomans was nipped in the bud with the colonial policies of the Wes t. It was in the context of these challenges that Islamic movements began to take shape in the territories of Islam.
This paper aims to provide an analysis of these movements as they have developed in the seedbed of Islamic civilization. We begin with a summary overview of the progress of Islamic civilization, and follow this with an analysis of the Islamic Awakening movement, which we treat under its four waves. The Islamic Awakening initially began with the intelligentsia within the Islamic world, each of which had a different view as how best to dislodge the Islamic world from the rut in which it found itself. After this first phase, the people entered the fray and the Islamic Awakening took on the characteristics of a people’s movement, and was able to score some victories in certain regions.